TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM:
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Volume 1: March 4, 2004

Part B: Index of Entries by Topic


Case Studies

Abraham, Shara. "Chechnya: Between War and Peace." Human Rights Brief, vol. 8, no. 2 (2001), 1-8.

Alexander, Yonah and Dennis A. Pluchinsky, eds., European Terrorism: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Brassey's Inc., 1992.

Alexander, Yonah and Michael S. Swetnam. Usama bin Laden's al-Qaeda: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2001.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Dream," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 163-175.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Justice," and "Notes" in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 176-188 and 189-214.

Banks, William C. "To Prevent And Deter" International Terrorism: The U.S. Response to the Kenya And Tanzania Embassy Bombings. Washington, DC: National Security Studies, Case Study #CS 0699-12.

Bartoli, Andrea. "Forgiveness and Reconciliation in the Mozambique Peace Process," in Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation, edited by Raymond G. Helmick, S. J. and Rodney Petersen. (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2001), 361-381.

Bearden, Milt. "Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no 6 (Nov-Dec 2001), 17-30.

Beres, Louis René. "Israel, the 'Peace Process,' and Nuclear Terrorism: Recognizing the Linkages." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 21, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1998), 59-86.

Bergen, Peter. "The Bin Laden Trial: What Did We Learn?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 6 (Nov 2001), 429-435.

Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir: Fundamentalism Takes Root." Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 2 (Nov-Dec 1999), 22-53.

Cameron, Gavin. "Multi-track Microproliferation: Lessons from Aum Shinrikyo and Al Qaeda." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 22, no. 4 (Nov 1999), 277-309.

Chalk, Peter. "The Response to Terrorism as a Threat to Liberal Democracy." Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 44, no. 3 (1998), 373-88.

Chauvin, Luc. "French Diplomacy and the Hostage Crises," in The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States, edited by Barry Rubin. (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, 1990), 91-104.

Combs, Cindy C. "Counterterrorism: The Use of Special Forces," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 167-179.

Combs, Cindy C. "Terrorism by the State," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 66-86.

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Chemical Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Crenshaw, Martha. "The Effectiveness of Terrorism in the Algerian War," in Terrorism in Context. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 473-513

Crenshaw, Martha. "Why Violence is Rejected or Renounced: A Case Study of Oppositional Terrorism," in A Natural History of Peace, edited by Thomas Gregor. (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1996), 249-272.

Crouch, Harold. "Indonesia: Violence and Radical Muslims." The International Crisis Group (October 2002).

Davis, Michael. "Laskar Jihad and the Political Position of Conservative Islam in Indonesia," Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, vol. 24, no. 1 (April 2002), 12-33.

de Silva, Chandra R. "The Role of Education in Ameliorating Political Violence in Sri Lanka" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 109-129

della Porta, Donatella. "Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 105-159.

della Porta, Donatella. Social Movements, Political Violence and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Italy and Germany. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics), 1995.

Gall, Carlotta and Thomas de Waal. "Terrorism and Talks," in Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus. (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 256-288.

Ganguly, Rajat. "India, Pakistan and the Kashmir Insurgency: Causes, Dynamics and Prospects for Resolution." Asian Studies Review, vol. 25, no. 3 (Sept 2001), 309-335.

Ganguly, Sumit. "Explaining the Kashmir Insurgency: Political Mobilization and Institutional Decay." International Security, vol. 21, no. 2 (Fall 1996), 76-107.

Ganguly, Sumit. "Pakistan's Never-Ending Story," Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2000), 2-7.

Green, Jerrold D. "Terrorism and Politics in Iran," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 553-594

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Colombia University Press, 2002), 137-139.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Colombia University Press, 2002), 205-218.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Sri Lanka's Ethnic Crisis and National Security. Colombo: South Asian Network on Conflict Research, 1998.

Hasan, Lihat Noorhaidi. "Faith and Politics: The Rise of Laskar Jihad in the Era of Transition in Indonesia." Indonesia, no. 73 (April 2002), 145-170.

Hatina, Meir. "Ideological Outlook," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 47-62.

Hatina, Meir. "Introduction," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 17-22.

Hatina, Meir. "Islamic Jihad - Historic Milestones," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 23-46.

Hatina, Meir. "The Oslo Accords - Ideology and Political Reality," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 85-106.

Hatina, Meir. Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001.

Hefner, Robert W. "Democratization in an Age of Religious Revitalization," in Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 3-20.

Hersh, Seymour M. "The Missiles of August." The New Yorker, vol. 74, no. 31 (Oct 12, 1998), 34-42.

Heymann, Philip and David Kennedy. "Extradition of Mohammed Hamadei." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #835. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Achille Lauro Hijacking." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #863 and #864. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Bringing Terror to Justice: The Extraterritorial Arrest of Fawaz Yunis." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #960. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Terrorism in the Cour d'Assises: The U.S. v. France v. Georges Ibrahim Abdallah." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #904. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Horgan, John; Taylor, Max. "Playing the Green Card - Financing the Provisional IRA: Part 1." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 2 (Summer 1999), 1-38.

Jaber, Hala. Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance. New York: Columbia University Press 1997.

Jebb, Cindy R. "The Fight for Legitimacy: Liberal Democracy Versus Terrorism." The Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (Spring 2003), 126-154

Jones, Sidney. Al-Qaeda in Southeast Asia: The Case of 'Ngruki Network' in Indonesia. The International Crisis Group (Aug 2002).

Joshi, Manoj. "On the Razor's Edge: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1996), 19-42.

Kaplan, David. "Aum Shinrikyo," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 207-226.

Karmon, Ely. "Islamic Terrorist Activities in Turkey in the 1990's." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1998), 101-121.

Karmon, Ely. "Terrorism in Turkey: An Analysis of the Principal Players." International Policy Institute for Counterterrorism, 1999. 

Katzenstein, Peter J. "Coping with Terrorism: Norms and Internal Security in Germany and Japan," in Ideas and Foreign Policy, edited by Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993), 265-295.

Korn, David A. Assassination in Khartoum. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1993.

Kriger, Norma J. Guerilla Veterans in Post-War Zimbabwe: Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980-1987. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Kumamoto, Robert. International Terrorism and American Foreign Relations, 1945-1976. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999.

Larson, Geoff. "The Right of International Intervention in Civil Conflicts: Evolving International Law on State Sovereignty in Observance of Human Rights and Application to the Crisis in Chechnya." Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, no. 251 (Spring 2001).

Leitenberg, Milton. "Aum Shinrikyo's Efforts to Produce Biological Weapons: A Case Study in the Serial Propagation of Misinformation." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 149-158.

Lewis, Bernard. "License to Kill." Foreign Affairs (Nov-Dec 1998), 14-19.

Little, David. "Religion and Ethnicity in the Sri Lankan Civil War," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 41-56.

Lustick, Ian S. "Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Targets and Audiences," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 514-552

Madrakhimov, M. Bakhrom. The Rise Of Islamic Fundamentalism Uzbekistan. Air Command and Staff College (Monograph 02-074), 2002.

McCloud, Kimberly and Matthew Osborne. "WMD Terrorism and Usama bin Laden." Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Nov 20, 2001).

Meltzer, Milton. The Day the Sky Fell: A History of Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2002.

Merkl, Peter J. "West German Left-Wing Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 160-210.

Mommsen, Wolfgang J. and Gerhard Hirschfeld, eds. Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Nacos, Brigitte L. Terrorism and the Media: From the Iran Hostage Crisis to the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

O'Doherty, Malachi. The Trouble With Guns: Republican Strategy and the Provisional IRA. Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1998.

O'Halpin, Eunan. "Unresolved Questions: Defense, Security, Subversion since 1969," in Defending Ireland: The Irish State and its Enemies since 1922. (Oxford University Press, 1999), 304-349.

Palmer, David Scott. "The Revolutionary Terrorism of Peru's Shining Path," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 249-308

Parachini, John V. "Comparing Motives and Outcomes of Mass Casualty Terrorism Involving Conventional and Unconventional Weapons." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept 2001), 389-406.

Perry, Duncan M. The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Revolutionary Movements, 1893-1903. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1988.

Pomper, Phillip M. "Russian Revolutionary Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 63-101.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Guerrilla Strategy," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 39-51.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Origins and Development of the Guerrillas," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 23-38.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "The Illegal Self-Defense Groups: Cause or Symptom of the Disorder?" in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 53-60.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001).

Rashid, Ahmed. "Namangani and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 137-155.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Hizb ut-Tahrir: Reviving the Caliphate," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 115-136.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Islamic Renaissance Party and the Civil War in Tajikistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 95-114.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Taliban: Exporting Extremism." Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 2 (Nov-Dec 1999), 22-53.

Richardson, Louise. "A Spiral of Peace? Bringing an End to Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland," in Civil Wars: Consequences and Possibilities for Regulation, edited by Heinrich Krumwiede and Peter Waldmann. (Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Publishers, 2000), 166-184.

Roach, Kent. September 11: Consequences for Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Rosenau, William. "Aum Shinrikyo's Biological Weapons Program: Why Did it Fail?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 4 (July 2001), 289-310.

Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd. "The Dynamics of Conflict: Culture," in The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 178-203.

Rubin, Elizabeth. "The Most Wanted Palestinian." The New York Times Magazine (June 30, 2002).

Sayigh, Yezid. Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Segal, Haggai. "Clear Away the Abomination!" in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 52-60.

Segal, Haggai. "In Search of a Spiritual Authority," in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 61-73.

Segal, Haggai. "Shabtai Ben-Dov," in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 36-51.

Sen, Amartya. "Secularism and its Discontents," in Secularism and its Critics, edited by Rajeev Bhargava. (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), 454-485.

Shabad, Goldie and Francisco Jose Llera Ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State: Basque Terrorism in Spain," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 410-469.

Shaffer, Brenda. "Is there a Muslim Foreign Policy? The Case of the Caspian." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 382-387

Smith, M. L. R. Fighting for Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement. London: Routledge, 1996

Sprinzak, Ehud. "From Messianic Pioneering to Vigilante Terrorism: The Case of the Gush Emunim Underground," in Inside Terrorist Organizations, edited by David C. Rapoport. (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001), 194-216.

Stern, Jessica. "The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 139-157.

Swamy, M.R. Narayan. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerillas. Delhi: Konark Publishers, 1994.

Townshend, Charles. "The Culture of Paramilitarism in Ireland," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 311-351

Tucker, Jonathan B. "Historical Trends Related to Bioterrorism: An Empirical Analysis." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 498-504.

Tucker, Jonathan B., ed. Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000.

Uyangoda, Jayadeva. "A Political Culture of Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 158-168.

Wallace, Paul. "Political Violence and Terrorism in India: The Crisis of Identity," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 354-409.

Watanabe, Manabu. "Religion and Violence in Japan Today: A Chronological and Doctrinal Analysis of Aum Shinrikyo." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1998), 80-100.

Wechsler, William F. "Strangling the Hydra," in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 129-143.

Wieviorka, Michel. "French Politics and Strategy on Terrorism," in The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States, edited by Barry Rubin. (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, 1990), 61-90.

Zanders, Jean Pascal. "Assessing the Risk of Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation to Terrorists." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 6, no. 4 (Fall 1999), 17-34.

Zimmermann, Tim. "Coercive Diplomacy and Libya," in The Limits of Coercive Diplomacy (2nd Edition), edited by Alexander L. George and William E. Simons. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), 201-228.

 

CBRN Counterrorism Policy

Betts, Richard K. "The New Threat of Mass Destruction." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1998), 26-40.

Block, Steve. "Living Nightmares: Biological Threats Enabled by Molecular Biology" in The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons, edited by Sidney Drell, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson. (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1999), 39-75.

Bunn, George and Fritz Steinhausler. "Guarding Nuclear Reactors and Material From Terrorists and Thieves." Arms Control Today, vol. 31, no. 8 (Oct 2001), 8-12

Bunn, George, Fritz Steinhausler, and Lyudmila Zaitseva. "Strengthening Nuclear Security Against Terrorists and Thieves Through Better Training." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2001), 137-149.

Cameron, Gavin. "WMD Terrorism in the United States: The Threat and Possible Countermeasures." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 162-179.

Carter, Ashton, John Deutch and Phillip Zelikow. "Catastrophic Terrorism: Tackling the New Danger." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 1998), 80-94.

Carus, Seth. "The Threat of Bioterrorism." Strategic Forum, no. 127 (September 1997).

Chyba, Chris. "Biological Security in a Changed World." Columbia International Affairs Online Working Papers, Center for International Security and Cooperation (September 2001). 

Cole, Leonard. " A Plague of Publicity." The Washington Post (August 16, 1999).

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Radiological and Nuclear Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Crelinsten, Ronald D. "Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in a Multi-Centric World: Challenges and Opportunities." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 170-196.

Drell, Sidney, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson, eds. The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1999.

Falkenrath, Richard A. "Confronting Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Terrorism." Survival, vol. 40, no. 3 (Autumn 1998), 43-65.

Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman and Bradley A. Thayer. "Recommendations: An Agenda for the American Government," in America's Achilles' Heel. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998), 261-336.

Ford, James L. "Nuclear Smuggling: How Serious a Threat." Strategic Forum, no 59. Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University (Jan 1996).

Foxell, Joseph W. "Current Trends in Agroterrorism (Antilivestock, Anticrop, and Antisoil Bioagricultural Terrorism) and Their Potential Impact on Food Security." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 2 (Apr 2001), 107-129.

Fraser, Claire M. and Malcolm R. Dando. "Genomics and Future Biological Weapons: The Need for Preventative Action by the Biomedical Community." Nature Genetics, vol. 29, no. 3 (2001), 253-256.

Garrett, Laurie. "The Nightmare of Bioterrorism." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2001), 76-89.

Gressang, Daniel S. "Audience and Message: Assessing Terrorist WMD Potential." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 83-106.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Change and Continuity in Terrorism." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept 2001), 417-428.

Joseph, Robert G. "The Impact of NBC Proliferation on Doctrine and Operations." Joint Forces Quarterly (Autumn 1996), 74-80.

Kamp, Karl-Heinz, Joseph F. Pilat, Jessica Stern, and Richard A. Falkenrath. "WMD Terrorism: An Exchange." Survival, vol. 40, no. 4 (Winter 1998-99), 168-183.

Manwaring, Max G., ed. Deterrence in the 21st Century. Portland: Frank Cass, 2001.

Marlo, Francis H. "WMD Terrorism and US Intelligence Collection." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 3 (Autumn 1999), 53-71.

Moodie, Michael, Jonathan Ban, Catherine Manzi, and Michael J. Powers. Bioterrorism in the United States: Threat, Preparedness, and Response. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2001.

Parachini, John V. "Non-Proliferation Policy and the War on Terrorism." Arms Control Today, vol. 31, no. 8 (Oct 2001), 13-15.

Parachini, John. "Putting WMD Terrorism into Perspective." The Washington Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 4 (Autumn 2003), 37-50.

Perry, William J. "Preparing for the Next Attack." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 2001), 31-45.

Roberts, Brad, ed. Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons: Calibrating Risks and Responses. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1997.

Roundtable on the Implications of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks for Nonproliferation and Arms Control. Nonproliferation Review, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2001, 11-26.

Schmid, Alex P. "Terrorism and the Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: From Where The Risk?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 106-132.

Siegrist, David W. "The Threat of Biological Attack: Why Concern Now?" Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 505-508.

Smithson, Amy E. and Leslie-Anne Levy. "Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Threat and the US Response." (Report no. 35) Henry L. Stimson Center, Oct 2000.

Sopko, John F. "The Changing Proliferation Threat." Foreign Policy, no. 105 (Winter 1996-1997).

Sprinzak, Ehud. "Terrorism, Real and Imagined." The Washington Post (August 19, 1998).

Sprinzak, Ehud. "The Great Superterrorism Scare." Foreign Policy, no. 112 (Fall 1998), 110-125

Stern, Jessica. "A Lethal Weapon We Must Learn to Recognize." The New York Times (October 16, 1999).

Stern, Jessica. "Will Terrorists Turn to Poison?" Orbis (Summer 1993), 393-410.

Zanders, Jean Pascal, Edvard Karlsson, Lena Melin, Erik Naslund and Lennart Thaning. "Risk Assessment of Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons (Appendix 9A)." SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000), 537-559.

Zanders, Jean Pascal. "Assessing the Risk of Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation to Terrorists." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 6, no. 4 (Fall 1999), 17-34.

 

CBRN Terrorism

Beres, Louis René. "Israel, the 'Peace Process,' and Nuclear Terrorism: Recognizing the Linkages." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 21, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1998), 59-86.

Block, Steve. "Living Nightmares: Biological Threats Enabled by Molecular Biology" in The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons, edited by Sidney Drell, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson. (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1999), 39-75.

Bowman, Steve and Helit Barel. Weapons of Mass Destruction - The Terrorist Threat. (CRS Report for Congress, RS20412). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service (Dec 8, 1999).

Bowman, Steve, ed. Biological Weapons: A Primer. New York: Novinka Books, 2001.

Bunn, George and Fritz Steinhausler. "Guarding Nuclear Reactors and Material From Terrorists and Thieves." Arms Control Today, vol. 31, no. 8 (Oct 2001), 8-12

Bunn, George, Fritz Steinhausler, and Lyudmila Zaitseva. "Strengthening Nuclear Security Against Terrorists and Thieves Through Better Training." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2001), 137-149.

Cameron, Gavin and Jason Pate. "Covert Biological Weapons Attacks Against Agricultural Targets: Assessing the Impact Against US Agriculture." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 61-82.

Cameron, Gavin, Jason Pate, Diana McCauley, and Lindsay DeFazio. "1999 WMD Terrorism Chronology: Incidents Involving Sub-National Actors and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Materials." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 157-174.

Cameron, Gavin. "Multi-track Microproliferation: Lessons from Aum Shinrikyo and Al Qaeda." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 22, no. 4 (Nov 1999), 277-309.

Cameron, Gavin. "WMD Terrorism in the United States: The Threat and Possible Countermeasures." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 162-179.

Cameron, Gavin. Nuclear Terrorism: A Threat Assessment for the 21st Century. New York: St. Martin's, 1999.

Carter, Ashton, John Deutch and Phillip Zelikow. "Catastrophic Terrorism: Tackling the New Danger." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 1998), 80-94.

Carus, Seth. "The Threat of Bioterrorism." Strategic Forum, no. 127 (September 1997).

Carus, W. Seth. "Biological Warfare Threats in Perspective." Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 3 (Sept 1998), 149-155.

Casagrande, Rocco. "Biological Terrorism Targeted at Agriculture: The Threat to US National Security." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2000), 92-105.

Center for Counterproliferation Research. "Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: The Threat According to the Current Unclassified Literature." National Defense University, 31 May 2002.

Chyba, Chris. "Biological Security in a Changed World." Columbia International Affairs Online Working Papers, Center for International Security and Cooperation (September 2001). 

Chyba, Christopher F. "Biological Terrorism and Public Health," Survival, vol. 43, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 93-106.

Claridge, David. "Exploding the Myths of Superterrorism," Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 133-148.

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Radiological and Nuclear Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Chemical Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Biological Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Crelinsten, Ronald D. "Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in a Multi-Centric World: Challenges and Opportunities." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 170-196.

Dolnik, Adam. "Die and Let Die: Exploring the Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2003), 17-35.

Drell, Sidney, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson, eds. The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1999.

Falkenrath, Richard A. "Confronting Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Terrorism." Survival, vol. 40, no. 3 (Autumn 1998), 43-65.

Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman, and Bradley A. Thayer. America's Achilles. Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998.

Ford, James L. "Nuclear Smuggling: How Serious a Threat." Strategic Forum, no 59. Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University (Jan 1996).

Ford, James L. "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat." Strategic Forum, no. 136. Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University (Mar 1998).

Foxell, Joseph W. "Current Trends in Agroterrorism (Antilivestock, Anticrop, and Antisoil Bioagricultural Terrorism) and Their Potential Impact on Food Security." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 2 (Apr 2001), 107-129.

Foxell, Joseph W. "The Debate on the Potential for Mass-Casualty Terrorism: The Challenge to US Security." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 94-109.

Fraser, Claire M. and Malcolm R. Dando. "Genomics and Future Biological Weapons: The Need for Preventative Action by the Biomedical Community." Nature Genetics, vol. 29, no. 3 (2001), 253-256.

Gressang, Daniel S. "Audience and Message: Assessing Terrorist WMD Potential." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 83-106.

Gurr, Nadine and Benjamin Cole. The New Face of Terrorism: Threats from Weapons of Mass Destruction. New York: I.B. Tauris and Co., 2000.

Howard, Russell D. and Reid L. Sawyer, eds. Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004 (revised edition).

Jacobs, Stanley S. "The Nuclear Threat as a Terrorist Option," Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1998), 149-163.

Joseph, Robert G. "The Impact of NBC Proliferation on Doctrine and Operations." Joint Forces Quarterly (Autumn 1996), 74-80.

Kamp, Karl-Heinz, Joseph F. Pilat, Jessica Stern, and Richard A. Falkenrath. "WMD Terrorism: An Exchange." Survival, vol. 40, no. 4 (Winter 1998-99), 168-183.

Kaplan, David. "Aum Shinrikyo," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 207-226.

Lavoy, Peter R., Scott D. Sagan, and James J. Wirtz, eds. Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Lederberg, Joshua, ed. Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.

Leitenberg, Milton. "An Assessment of the Biological Weapons Threat to the United States." The Journal of Homeland Security (January 2001).

Leitenberg, Milton. "Aum Shinrikyo's Efforts to Produce Biological Weapons: A Case Study in the Serial Propagation of Misinformation." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 149-158.

Leitenberg, Milton. "False Alarm." The Washington Post (August 14, 1999).

Maerli, Morten Bremer. "Relearning the ABCs: Terrorists and 'Weapons of Mass Destruction.'" Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 108-119.

Manwaring, Max G., ed. Deterrence in the 21st Century. Portland: Frank Cass, 2001.

Mayer, Jean-François. "Cults, Violence and Religious Terrorism: An International Perspective." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept 2001), 361-376.

McCloud, Kimberly and Matthew Osborne. "WMD Terrorism and Usama bin Laden." Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Nov 20, 2001).

Moodie, Michael, Jonathan Ban, Catherine Manzi, and Michael J. Powers. Bioterrorism in the United States: Threat, Preparedness, and Response. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2001.

Mueller, John and Karl Mueller. "The Methodology of Mass Destruction: Assessing Threats in the New World Order." Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (Mar 2000), 163-187.

Parachini, John V. "Comparing Motives and Outcomes of Mass Casualty Terrorism Involving Conventional and Unconventional Weapons." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept 2001), 389-406.

Parachini, John. "Putting WMD Terrorism into Perspective." The Washington Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 4 (Autumn 2003), 37-50.

Pate, Jason, Gary Ackerman, and Kimberly McCloud. "2000 WMD Terrorism Chronology: Incidents Involving Sub-National Actors and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear Materials." Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Aug 13, 2001).

Perry, William J. "Preparing for the Next Attack." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 2001), 31-45.

Propst, Rod. "New Terrorists, New Attack Means? Categorizing Terrorist Challenges for the Early 21st Century." Journal of Homeland Security (Mar 2002).

Roberts, Brad, ed. Hype or Reality: The "New Terrorism" and Mass Casualty Attacks. Alexandria, VA: The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2000.

Roberts, Brad, ed. Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons: Calibrating Risks and Responses. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1997.

Rosenau, William. "Aum Shinrikyo's Biological Weapons Program: Why Did it Fail?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 4 (July 2001), 289-310.

Roy, Olivier, Bruce Hoffman, Reuven Paz, Steve Simon, and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism: An Exchange." Survival, vol. 42, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 165-172.

Schmid, Alex P. "Terrorism and the Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: From Where The Risk?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 106-132.

Siegrist, David W. "The Threat of Biological Attack: Why Concern Now?" Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 505-508.

Simon, Steven and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism." Survival, vol. 42, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 59-75.

Smithson, Amy E. and Leslie-Anne Levy. "Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Threat and the US Response." (Report no. 35) Henry L. Stimson Center, Oct 2000.

Sopko, John F. "The Changing Proliferation Threat." Foreign Policy, no. 105 (Winter 1996-1997).

Sprinzak, Ehud. "Terrorism, Real and Imagined." The Washington Post (August 19, 1998).

Sprinzak, Ehud. "The Great Superterrorism Scare." Foreign Policy, no. 112 (Fall 1998), 110-125

Stern, Jessica. "A Lethal Weapon We Must Learn to Recognize." The New York Times (October 16, 1999).

Stern, Jessica. "Taking the Terror out of Bioterrorism." New York Times, vol. 147, no. 51121, (April 8, 1998), A19.

Stern, Jessica. "Will Terrorists Turn to Poison?" Orbis (Summer 1993), 393-410.

Tucker, David. "What is New about the New Terrorism and How Dangerous is It?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 1-14.

Tucker, Jonathan B. "Historical Trends Related to Bioterrorism: An Empirical Analysis." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 498-504.

Tucker, Jonathan B. and Robert P. Kadlec. "Infectious Disease and National Security." Strategic Review, vol. 29, no. 2 (Spring 2001), 12-20.

Tucker, Jonathan B., ed. Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000.

U.S. General Accounting Office. "Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks." (GAO/NSIAD-99-163). September 1999.

U.S. General Accounting Office. "Combating Terrorism: Observations on the Threat of Chemical and Biological Terrorism." Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. (GAO/T-NSIAD-00-50). October 20, 1999.

Vegar, Jose. "Terrorism's New Breed." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 54, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 1998), 50-55.

Watanabe, Manabu. "Religion and Violence in Japan Today: A Chronological and Doctrinal Analysis of Aum Shinrikyo." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1998), 80-100.

Zanders, Jean Pascal, Edvard Karlsson, Lena Melin, Erik Naslund and Lennart Thaning. "Risk Assessment of Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons (Appendix 9A)." SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000), 537-559.

Zanders, Jean Pascal. "Assessing the Risk of Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation to Terrorists." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 6, no. 4 (Fall 1999), 17-34.

 

Changes in Terrorism

Center for Counterproliferation Research. "Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: The Threat According to the Current Unclassified Literature." National Defense University, 31 May 2002.

Jenkins, Philip. Images of Terror: What We Can and Can't Know about Terrorism. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003.

Leitenberg, Milton. "False Alarm." The Washington Post (August 14, 1999).

Stern, Jessica. "Taking the Terror out of Bioterrorism." New York Times, vol. 147, no. 51121, (April 8, 1998), A19.

 

Counterterrorism Instruments

Banks, William C. "To Prevent And Deter" International Terrorism: The U.S. Response to the Kenya And Tanzania Embassy Bombings. Washington, DC: National Security Studies, Case Study #CS 0699-12.

Brophy-Bauermann, Brian and John A.C. Conybeare. "Retaliating against Terrorism: Rational Expectations and the Optimality of Rules versus Discretion." American Journal of Political Science, vol. 83, no. 1 (Feb 1994), 196-210

Byman, Daniel L., Matthew C. Waxman, and Eric Larson. "Coercive Nonstate Actors: A Challenge for the Future," in Air Power as a Coercive Instrument. (Santa Monica: RAND, 1999), 107-126

Chauvin, Luc. "French Diplomacy and the Hostage Crises," in The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States, edited by Barry Rubin. (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, 1990), 91-104.

Combs, Cindy C. "Counterterrorism: The Use of Special Forces," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 167-179.

Crane, Conrad C. Facing The Hydra: Maintaining Strategic Balance While Pursuing A Global War Against Terrorism. U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Coercive Diplomacy and the Response to Terrorism," in The United States and Coercive Diplomacy, edited by Robert Art and Patrick Cronin. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003.

Donohue, Laura. "Counter-Terrorist Legislation, 1996-2000," in Counterterrorist Law and Emergency Powers in the United Kingdom, 1922-2000. (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2001), 259-305.

Donohue, Laura. "Emergency Powers and the Inception of the Northern State Emergency Measures," in Counterterrorist Law and Emergency Powers in the United Kingdom, 1922-2000. (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2001), 1-39.

Eppright, Charles T. "Counterterrorism and Conventional Military Force: The Relationship Between Political Effect and Utility," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 20, no. 4 (Oct-Dec 1997), 333-344.

Erard, Michael. "Translation in the Age of Terror." Technology Review (March, 2004).

Flynn, Stephen E. "The Unguarded Homeland: A Study in Malign Neglect," in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 183-197.

Fredman, Jonathan. "Covert Action, Loss of Life, and the Prohibition on Assassination." Studies in Intelligence, Semiannual Unclassified Edition, no. 1 (1997), 15-25.

Gall, Carlotta and Thomas de Waal. "Terrorism and Talks," in Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus. (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 256-288.

Gershman, John. "Is Southeast Asia the Second Front?" Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 4 (July-Aug 2002), 60-74.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Achille Lauro Hijacking." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #863 and #864. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Bringing Terror to Justice: The Extraterritorial Arrest of Fawaz Yunis." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #960. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Phillip. "Dealing with Terrorism: An Overview." International Security (Winter 2001-02), 24-48.

Imbus, Michael T. Identifying Threats: Improving Intelligence And Counterintelligence Support To Force Protection. Air Command and Staff College. (Monograph 02-059), 2002.

Joseph, Robert G. "The Impact of NBC Proliferation on Doctrine and Operations." Joint Forces Quarterly (Autumn 1996), 74-80.

Lepgold, Joseph. "Hypotheses on Vulnerability: Are Terrorists and Drug Traffickers Coerceable?" in Strategic Coercion: Concept and Cases, edited by Lawrence Freedman. (London: Oxford University Press, 1998), 131-150.

Livingstone, Neil C. "States in Opposition," in The War Against Terrorism. (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1982), 155-202.

Martin, David C. and John Walcott. Best Laid Plans: The Inside Story of America's War Against Terrorism. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1988.

Roberts, Adam. "Counterterrorism, Armed Force and the Laws of War." Survival, vol. 44, no. 1 (Spring 2002), 7-32.

Schultz, Richard. "Showstoppers: Nine Reasons Why We Never Sent Our Special Operations Forces After al Qaeda Before 9/11." The Weekly Standard (January 26, 2004), 25-33.

Thachuk, Kimberley. "Transnational Trends: New Threats?" in Strategic Assessment 1999: Priorities for a Turbulent World, edited by Hans Binnendijk. (Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1999). 

Tucker, David. "History," in Skirmishes at the Edge of Empire: The United States and International Terrorism. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997), 1-50.

United States of America v. Khalfan Khamis Mohamed. Court Transcript, July 2, 2001.

Weiner, Tim. "Rethinking the Ban on Political Assassinations." The New York Times (August 30, 1998).

White, Mary Jo. "Prosecuting Terrorism in New York." Middle East Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 2 (Spring 2001).

Wilson, J. Brent. "The United States' Response to International Terrorism," in The Deadly Sin Of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, edited by David A. Charters. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), 173-210.

Youngs, Tim, Paul Bowers and Mark Oakes. The Campaign Against International Terrorism: Prospects After The Fall Of The Taliban. Research Paper 01/112. International Affairs And Defense Section, House Of Commons Library (December 11, 2001).

Zimmermann, Tim. "Coercive Diplomacy and Libya," in The Limits of Coercive Diplomacy (2nd Edition), edited by Alexander L. George and William E. Simons. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), 201-228.

 

 

 

 

Counterterrorism Policies – A Macro Perspective

Alexander, Yonah and Dennis A. Pluchinsky, eds., European Terrorism: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Brassey's Inc., 1992.

Banks, William C. "To Prevent And Deter" International Terrorism: The U.S. Response to the Kenya And Tanzania Embassy Bombings. Washington, DC: National Security Studies, Case Study #CS 0699-12. 

Bearden, Milt. "Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no 6 (Nov-Dec 2001), 17-30.

Brophy-Bauermann, Brian and John A.C. Conybeare. "Retaliating against Terrorism: Rational Expectations and the Optimality of Rules versus Discretion." American Journal of Political Science, vol. 83, no. 1 (Feb 1994), 196-210

Cragin, Kim and Peter Chalk. Terrorism and Development: Using Social and Economic Development to Inhibit a Resurgence of Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2003.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Coercive Diplomacy and the Response to Terrorism," in The United States and Coercive Diplomacy, edited by Robert Art and Patrick Cronin. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Counterterrorism Policy and the Political Process." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept-Oct 2001), 329-337

Crenshaw, Martha. "How Terrorism Declines." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 1991), 69-88.

Daalder, Ivo H., James M. Lindsay, and James B. Steinberg. "Hard Choices: National Security and the War on Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002) p. 409-413

Delpech, Therese. "The Imbalance of Terror." The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2002), 31-40.

Eppright, Charles T. "Counterterrorism and Conventional Military Force: The Relationship Between Political Effect and Utility," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 20, no. 4 (Oct-Dec 1997), 333-344.

Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman and Bradley A. Thayer. "Recommendations: An Agenda for the American Government," in America's Achilles' Heel. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998), 261-336.

Farrell, William R. The U. S. Government Response to Terrorism: In Search of an Effective Strategy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.

Fredman, Jonathan. "Covert Action, Loss of Life, and the Prohibition on Assassination." Studies in Intelligence, Semiannual Unclassified Edition, no. 1 (1997), 15-25.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 221-242.

Hermann, Margaret G. and Charles F. Hermann. "Hostage Taking, the Presidency, and Stress," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 211-229.

Heymann, Philip and David Kennedy. "Extradition of Mohammed Hamadei." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #835. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Achille Lauro Hijacking." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #863 and #864. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Bringing Terror to Justice: The Extraterritorial Arrest of Fawaz Yunis." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #960. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Heymann, Philip and Vlad Jenkins. "Terrorism in the Cour d'Assises: The U.S. v. France v. Georges Ibrahim Abdallah." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management, #904. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Howard, Russell D. and Reid L. Sawyer, eds. Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004 (revised edition).

Hughes, Jonathan B. Choosing a Moral Framework for the War on Terror. School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 2002.

Katzenstein, Peter J. "Coping with Terrorism: Norms and Internal Security in Germany and Japan," in Ideas and Foreign Policy, edited by Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993), 265-295.

Katzenstein, Peter J. "Same War: Different Views: Germany, Japan, and the War on Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 427-435.

Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Tilting at Dominos: America and Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 421-426

Livingstone, Neil C. "States in Opposition," in The War Against Terrorism. (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1982), 155-202.

Lyman, Princeton N. and J. Stephen Morrison. "The Terrorist Threat in Africa." Foreign Affairs, vol. 83, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2004), 75-86.

Mallaby, Sebastian. "The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, and the Case for American Empire." Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2002), 2-7.

Nunez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture For The Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, And Soft Power. U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.

Nye, Joseph. "Governments Challenge: Getting Serious About Terrorism," in  How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 199-210.

Pillar, Paul R. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2001.

Post, Jerrold M., Kevin Ruby and Eric Shaw. "The Radical Group in Context: An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Group Risk for Terrorism." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 25, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2002), 73-101.

Post, Jerrold. "Terrorist Psycho-logic" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 25-40.

Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Record, Jeffrey. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Roberts, Adam. "Counterterrorism, Armed Force and the Laws of War." Survival, vol. 44, no. 1 (Spring 2002), 7-32.

Schultz, Richard. "Showstoppers: Nine Reasons Why We Never Sent Our Special Operations Forces After al Qaeda Before 9/11." The Weekly Standard (January 26, 2004), 25-33.

Sick, Gary. "Taking Vows" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 230-244.

Smith, Andrew J. "Combating Terrorism." Military Review (Jan-Feb, 2002), 11-18.

Thachuk, Kimberley. "Transnational Trends: New Threats?" in Strategic Assessment 1999: Priorities for a Turbulent World, edited by Hans Binnendijk. (Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1999). 

Turner, Stansfield. Terrorism and Democracy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

Wilkinson, Paul. Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.

Wilson, J. Brent. "The United States' Response to International Terrorism," in The Deadly Sin Of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, edited by David A. Charters. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), 173-210.

 

Counterterrorism Questions in Society

Carter, Ashton B. "The Architecture of Government in the Face of Terrorism." International Security, vol. 26, no. 3 (Dec 2001), 5-24.

Daalder, Ivo H., James M. Lindsay, and James B. Steinberg. "Hard Choices: National Security and the War on Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002) p. 409-413

Flynn, Stephen E. "The Unguarded Homeland: A Study in Malign Neglect," in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 183-197.

Livingstone, Neil C. "States in Opposition," in The War Against Terrorism. (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1982), 155-202.

Neier, Aryeh. "The Military Tribunals on Trial." The New York Review of Books, vol. 49, no. 2 (February 14, 2002), 1-11

Post, Jerrold. "Terrorist Psycho-logic" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 25-40.

Roberts, Adam. "Counterterrorism, Armed Force and the Laws of War." Survival, vol. 44, no. 1 (Spring 2002), 7-32.

Weiner, Tim. "Rethinking the Ban on Political Assassinations." The New York Times (August 30, 1998).

 

Cults

Festinger, Leon, Henry W. Riecken, and Stanley Schachter. When Prophesy Fails. (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1956), 3-32.

Kaplan, David. "Aum Shinrikyo," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 207-226.

 

Cyberterrorism

Cilluffo, Frank J. and Curt H. Gergely. "Information Warfare and Strategic Terrorism." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 1997), 84-95.

Cilluffo Frank J. and Paul Byron Pattak. 2000. "Cyber Threats: Ten Issues for Consideration." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, vol. 1, no. 1, (Winter-Spring 2000).

Conway, Martha. "What is Cyberterrorism?" Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 436-442.

Lamb, Michael W. Bytes: Weapons of Mass Disruption. Air War College, 2002.

 

Defining Terrorism

Byford, Grenville. "The Wrong War." Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 4 (July-Aug 2002), 34-43.

Chomsky, Noam. "International Terrorism: Image and Reality," in Western State Terrorism, edited by Alexander George. (New York: Routledge), 12-38.

Combs, Cindy C. "An Idea Whose Time Has Come?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 1-17.

Combs, Cindy C. "Legal Perspectives on Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 149-166.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Introduction: Thoughts on Relating Terrorism to Historical Contexts," in Terrorism in Context. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 3-24.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Questions to be Answered, Research to be Done, Knowledge to be Applied," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 247-260.

Ganor, Boaz. "Defining Terrorism: Is One Man's Terrorist Another Man's Freedom Fighter?" FORSNET (December 29, 2002).

Gibbs, Jack P. "Conceptualization of Terrorism," American Sociological Review, vol. 54 (1989), 329-340.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 13-44.

Howard, Russell D. and Reid L. Sawyer, eds. Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004 (revised edition).

Johnson, James Turner. Morality and Contemporary Warfare. (New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1999), 22-40 and 119-124.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Understanding the New Terrorism." Current History (April 2000), 158-163.

Kennedy, Robert. "Is One Person's Terrorist Another's Freedom Fighter? Western and Islamic Approaches to 'Just War' Compared." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 1-21.

Post, Jerrold M. "Terrorist Psycho-logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological Forces," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 25-40.

Sartori, Giovanni. "Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics." American Political Science Review, vol. 64, no. 4 (1970), 1033-1053.

Stern, Jessica. The Ultimate Terrorists. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 15-19.

Stevenson, Jonathan. "Pragmatic Counterterrorism." Survival, vol. 43, no. 4 (Winter, 2001-02), 35-48.

United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" (May 23, 2003).

 

Domestic Terrorism

Combs, Cindy C. "Terrorism by the State," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 66-86.

Crenshaw, Martha. "The Effectiveness of Terrorism in the Algerian War," in Terrorism in Context. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 473-513

della Porta, Donatella. "Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 105-159.

Gorriti, Gustavo. The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. Durham, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Hill, Paul. Various Internet essays and material (http://armyofgod.com).

Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. (Berkeley: University of California Press), 19-36.

Kellen, Konrad. "Ideology and Rebellion: Terrorism in Western Germany," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 43-58.

Merkl, Peter J. "West German Left-Wing Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 160-210.

O'Halpin, Eunan. "Unresolved Questions: Defense, Security, Subversion since 1969," in Defending Ireland: The Irish State and its Enemies since 1922. (Oxford University Press, 1999), 304-349.

Palmer, David Scott. "The Revolutionary Terrorism of Peru's Shining Path," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 249-308

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "The Illegal Self-Defense Groups: Cause or Symptom of the Disorder?" in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 53-60.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001).

Shabad, Goldie and Francisco Jose Llera Ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State: Basque Terrorism in Spain," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 410-469.

Silke, Andrew. "Drink, Drugs, and Rock-n-Roll: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland, Part 2." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 23 (April-June 2000), 107-127.

Simon, Jeffrey D. The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism (2nd Edition). Indiana University Press, 2001.

Stern, Jessica. "The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 139-157.

Toolis, Kevin. Rebel Hearts: Journeys Within the IRA's Soul. St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Townshend, Charles. "The Culture of Paramilitarism in Ireland," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 311-351

van Bruinessen, Martin. "Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia." South East Research, vol. 10, no. 2 (2002), 117-154.

 

Ethnic Separatism

Chalk, Peter. "Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's (LTTE) International Organization and Operations: A Preliminary Analysis." Comentary 77, a Canadian Security Intelligence Service Publication (1999).

de Silva, Chandra R. "The Role of Education in Ameliorating Political Violence in Sri Lanka" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 109-129

Deng, Francis M. "Conclusions," in War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995), 484-515.

Deng, Francis M. "Overview of the Conflict," "Evolution of Identity of the North," and "Evolution of Identity of the South," in War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995), 9-97.

Edrisinha, Rohan. "Constitutionalism, Pluralism, and Ethnic Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 169-187.

Ganguly, Rajat. "India, Pakistan and the Kashmir Insurgency: Causes, Dynamics and Prospects for Resolution." Asian Studies Review, vol. 25, no. 3 (Sept 2001), 309-335.

Ganguly, Sumit. "Explaining the Kashmir Insurgency: Political Mobilization and Institutional Decay." International Security, vol. 21, no. 2 (Fall 1996), 76-107.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Sri Lanka's Ethnic Crisis and National Security. Colombo: South Asian Network on Conflict Research, 1998.

Joshi, Manoj. "On the Razor's Edge: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1996), 19-42.

Little, David. "Religion and Ethnicity in the Sri Lankan Civil War," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 41-56.

Naipaul, V. S. "The End of the Line," in India: A Million Mutinies Now. (New York: Minerva, 1990), 351-387.

Schaffer, Teresita C. "Peacemaking in Sri Lanka: The Kumaratunga Initiative" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 131-141.

Swamy, M.R. Narayan. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerillas. Delhi: Konark Publishers, 1994.

Tiruchelvam, Neelan. "Devolution and the Elusive Quest for Peace," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 189-201.

Uyangoda, Jayadeva. "A Political Culture of Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 158-168.

Wallace, Paul. "Political Violence and Terrorism in India: The Crisis of Identity," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 354-409.

 

The Framework

Brown, Seyom. "The Problem of Incongruence" and "Conclusion: The Future of World Politics" in New Forces, Old Forces, and the Future of World Politics. (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1995), 243-269.

Schwartz, Peter. The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World. New York: Currency/Doubleday, 1991.

 

The Future of Terrorism

Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt. "The Advent of Netwar (Revisited)," in Networks and Netwars. (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001), 1-25.

Combs, Cindy C. "Future Trends," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 214-231.

Combs, Cindy C. "Legal Perspectives on Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 149-166.

Conway, Martha. "What is Cyberterrorism?" Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 436-442.

Kurth, James. "Confronting the Unipolar Moment: The American Empire and Islamic Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 403-408

Lesser, Ian O., Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David Ronfelft, and Michele Zanini. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.

Schwartz, Peter. The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World. New York: Currency/Doubleday, 1991.

Stern, Jessica. "Protean Enemy." Foreign Affairs, vol. 82, no. 4 (July-Aug 2003), 27-40.

 

Global Environment

Brown, Seyom. "The Problem of Incongruence" and "Conclusion: The Future of World Politics" in New Forces, Old Forces, and the Future of World Politics. (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1995), 243-269.

Campbell, Kurt. "Globalization's First War?" The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2002), 7-14.

Combs, Cindy C. "Legal Perspectives on Terrorism," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 149-166.

Combs, Cindy C. "Not a Modern Phenomenon," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 18-31.

Delpech, Therese. "The Imbalance of Terror." The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2002), 31-40.

Drezner, Daniel. "Globalizers of the World, Unite!" Washington Quarterly (Winter, 1998), 209-225.

Fox, Jonathan. "Two Civilizations and Ethnic Conflict: Islam and the West." Journal of Peace Research, vol. 38, no. 4 (2001), 459-472.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Third World War?" Survival, vol. 43, no. 4, (Winter 2001-02), 61-88.

Hartman, William J. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare. Air Command and Staff College. (Monograph 02-053), 2002.

Holm, Hans-Henrik and Georg Sorensen. "Introduction: What Has Changed," in Whose World Order: Uneven Globalization and the End of the Cold War. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995), 1-17.

Huntington, Sam. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, vol. 72, no. 3 (Summer 1993), 22-49.

Kaplan, David, Kevin Whitelaw, Edward T. Pound, Nora Keating, and Lisa Griffin. "The CEO of Terror, Inc." U.S. News and World Report (October 1, 2001).

Kinzer, Stephen. "The World: From the Caucasus to China; Zealots' Latest Targets are Poor, Remote and Vulnerable." The New York Times (October 31, 1999).

Klare, Michael. "The Deadly Nexus: Oil, Terrorism, and America's National Security." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 414-420

Kurth, James. "Confronting the Unipolar Moment: The American Empire and Islamic Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 403-408

Mallaby, Sebastian. "The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, and the Case for American Empire." Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2002), 2-7.

Mathews, Jessica T. "Power Shift." Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1997), 50-66.

Nunez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture For The Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, And Soft Power. U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.

Richards, Alan. Socio-Economic Roots Of Radicalism? Towards Explaining The Appeal Of Islamic Radicals. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Richardson, Louise. "Global Rebels." Harvard International Review (Fall 1998), 52-56.

Roy, Oliver. The Failure of Political Islam. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994), 107-131 and 194-203.

Stevenson, Jonathan. "Africa's Growing Strategic Resonance." Survival, vol. 45, no. 4 (Winter 2003-04), 153-171.

 

Historical Context

Akbar, M.J. "Jihad in the East: A Crescent Over Delhi" in The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. (New York: Routledge, 2002), 99-112.

Alexander, Yonah and Dennis A. Pluchinsky, eds., European Terrorism: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Brassey's Inc., 1992.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Being," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 50-73

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Dream," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 163-175.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Encounter," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 7-17

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Strife," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 18-49

Bearden, Milt. "Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires." Foreign Affairs, vol. 80, no 6 (Nov-Dec 2001), 17-30.

Benjamin, Daniel and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. (New York: Random House, 2002).

Cameron, Gavin, Jason Pate, Diana McCauley, and Lindsay DeFazio. "1999 WMD Terrorism Chronology: Incidents Involving Sub-National Actors and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Materials." Nonproliferation Review, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 157-174.

Carus, Seth. "The Threat of Bioterrorism." Strategic Forum, no. 127 (September 1997).

Chalk, Peter. "The Response to Terrorism as a Threat to Liberal Democracy." Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 44, no. 3 (1998), 373-88.

Chapman, Graham P. Geopolitics of South Asia: From Early Empires to the Nuclear Age (2nd Edition). Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2003.

Combs, Cindy C. "Not a Modern Phenomenon," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 18-31.

Combs, Cindy C. and Martin W. Slann. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. New York: Checkmark Books, 2003.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Introduction: Thoughts on Relating Terrorism to Historical Contexts," in Terrorism in Context. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 3-24.

Darby, John. "The Historical Background," in Northern Ireland: The Background to the Conflict. (Belfast, Northern Ireland: Appletree Press, 1983), 13-31.

Dunne, James T. "Osama bin Laden: A Survey of the Literature," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 3 (Mar-Apr 2003), 155-161.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Third World War?" Survival, vol. 43, no. 4, (Winter 2001-02), 61-88.

Green, Jerrold D. "Terrorism and Politics in Iran," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 553-594

Heehs, Peter. The Bomb in Bengal: The Rise of Revolutionary Terrorism in India, 1900-1910. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 13-44.

Holm, Hans-Henrik and Georg Sorensen. "Introduction: What Has Changed," in Whose World Order: Uneven Globalization and the End of the Cold War. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995), 1-17.

Ignatieff, Michael. "Intervention and State Failure." Dissent (Winter 2002), 115-123

Kushner, Harvey W. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. New York: Sage Publications, Inc., 2003.

Lesser, Ian O., Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David Ronfelft, and Michele Zanini. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.

Meltzer, Milton. The Day the Sky Fell: A History of Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2002.

Miller, Martin A. "The Intellectual Origins of Modern Terrorism in Europe," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crendhaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 27-62.

Nacos, Bridgett L., Robert Y. Shapiro, and Pierangelo Isernia, eds. Decisionmaking in a Glass House: Mass Media, Public Opinion, and American and European the 21st Century. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Pate, Jason, Gary Ackerman, and Kimberly McCloud. "2000 WMD Terrorism Chronology: Incidents Involving Sub-National Actors and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear Materials." Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Aug 13, 2001).

Pomper, Phillip M. "Russian Revolutionary Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 63-101.

Rapoport, David C. "Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions." The American Political Science Review, vol. 78, no. 3 (Sept 1984), 658-677.

Rashid, Ahmed. "Islam Underground in the Soviet Union," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 32-56.

Rashid, Ahmed. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd. "The Dynamics of Conflict: Culture," in The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 178-203.

Sayigh, Yezid. Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Simon, Jeffrey D. The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism (2nd Edition). Indiana University Press, 2001.

Stern, Jessica. The Ultimate Terrorists. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 15-19.

Timmerman, Kenneth R. Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America. New York: Random House, 2003.

Townshend, Charles. "The Culture of Paramilitarism in Ireland," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 311-351

Tucker, Jonathan B. "Historical Trends Related to Bioterrorism: An Empirical Analysis." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 498-504.

Weber, Max. "The Relationship of Religion to Politics, Economics, Sexuality, and Art," in The Sociology of Religion. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 223-245.

 

Mobilizing Forces

Crenshaw, Martha. "Why Violence is Rejected or Renounced: A Case Study of Oppositional Terrorism," in A Natural History of Peace, edited by Thomas Gregor. (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1996), 249-272.

Hardin, Russell. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 1-17 and 142-155.

Heehs, Peter. The Bomb in Bengal: The Rise of Revolutionary Terrorism in India, 1900-1910. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Mommsen, Wolfgang J. and Gerhard Hirschfeld, eds. Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Perry, Duncan M. The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Revolutionary Movements, 1893-1903. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1988.

Wilson, James Q. "Organizational Creation and Change," in Political Organizations. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 195-214.

Wilson, James Q. "Organizational Maintenance and Incentives," in Political Organizations. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 30-56.

 

National Terrorism Policy

Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt. "The Advent of Netwar (Revisited)," in Networks and Netwars. (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001), 1-25.

Benjamin, Daniel and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. (New York: Random House, 2002).

Bergen, Peter. "The Bin Laden Trial: What Did We Learn?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 6 (Nov 2001), 429-435.

Betts, Richard K. "The New Threat of Mass Destruction." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1998), 26-40.

Byford, Grenville. "The Wrong War." Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 4 (July-Aug 2002), 34-43.

Campbell, Kurt. "Globalization's First War?" The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2002), 7-14.

Carter, Ashton, John Deutch and Phillip Zelikow. "Catastrophic Terrorism: Tackling the New Danger." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 1998), 80-94.

Celmer, Marc. Terrorism, U. S. Strategy, and Reagan Policies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Chyba, Chris. "Biological Security in a Changed World." Columbia International Affairs Online Working Papers, Center for International Security and Cooperation (September 2001). 

Chyba, Christopher F. "Biological Terrorism and Public Health," Survival, vol. 43, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 93-106.

Combs, Cindy C. "Counterterrorism: The Use of Special Forces," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 167-179.

Combs, Cindy C. "The Media: A Weapon for Both Sides?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 120-148

Cordesman, Anthony H. "Defending America: Asymmetric and Terrorist Attacks with Radiological and Nuclear Weapons." Center for Strategic and International Studies (Sept 2001).

Crane, Conrad C. Facing The Hydra: Maintaining Strategic Balance While Pursuing A Global War Against Terrorism. U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Coercive Diplomacy and the Response to Terrorism," in The United States and Coercive Diplomacy, edited by Robert Art and Patrick Cronin. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003.

Daalder, Ivo H., James M. Lindsay, and James B. Steinberg. "Hard Choices: National Security and the War on Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002) p. 409-413

Davis, Paul K. and Brian M. Jenkins. Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism: A Component in the War on al Qaeda. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.

Eppright, Charles T. "Counterterrorism and Conventional Military Force: The Relationship Between Political Effect and Utility," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 20, no. 4 (Oct-Dec 1997), 333-344.

Falkenrath, Richard A., Robert D. Newman and Bradley A. Thayer. "Recommendations: An Agenda for the American Government," in America's Achilles' Heel. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998), 261-336.

Farrell, William R. The U. S. Government Response to Terrorism: In Search of an Effective Strategy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.

Ferracuti, Franco. "Ideology and Repentance: Terrorism in Italy," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 59-64.

Flynn, Stephen E. "The Unguarded Homeland: A Study in Malign Neglect," in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 183-197.

Foxell, Joseph W. "Current Trends in Agroterrorism (Antilivestock, Anticrop, and Antisoil Bioagricultural Terrorism) and Their Potential Impact on Food Security." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 2 (Apr 2001), 107-129.

Foxell, Joseph W. "The Debate on the Potential for Mass-Casualty Terrorism: The Challenge to US Security." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 94-109.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Third World War?" Survival, vol. 43, no. 4, (Winter 2001-02), 61-88.

Garreau, Joel. "Disconnect the Dots." The Washington Post (September 17, 2001), C01.

Gershman, John. "Is Southeast Asia the Second Front?" Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no. 4 (July-Aug 2002), 60-74.

Gillespie, Richard. "The Urban Guerrilla in Latin America," in Terrorism, Ideology, and Revolution, edited by Noel O'Sullivan. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986), 150-175.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 221-242.

Hartman, William J. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare. Air Command and Staff College. (Monograph 02-053), 2002.

Hermann, Margaret G. and Charles F. Hermann. "Hostage Taking, the Presidency, and Stress," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 211-229.

Heymann, Phillip. "Dealing with Terrorism: An Overview." International Security (Winter 2001-02), 24-48.

Hughes, Jonathan B. Choosing a Moral Framework for the War on Terror. School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 2002.

Jebb, Cindy R. "The Fight for Legitimacy: Liberal Democracy Versus Terrorism." The Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (Spring 2003), 126-154

Jenkins, Brian M. Countering al Qaeda: An Appreciation of the Situation and Suggestions for Strategy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.

Johnson, Douglas V. and John R. Martin. "Terrorism Viewed Historically," in Defeating Terrorism: Strategic Issue Analyses, edited by John R. Martin. (Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002), 1-5.

Jones, Clive. "One Size Fits All: Israel, Intelligence, and the al-Aqsa Intifada." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 4 (July-Aug 2003), 273-288

Katzenstein, Peter J. "Coping with Terrorism: Norms and Internal Security in Germany and Japan," in Ideas and Foreign Policy, edited by Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993), 265-295.

Katzenstein, Peter J. "Same War: Different Views: Germany, Japan, and the War on Terrorism." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 427-435.

Klare, Michael. "The Deadly Nexus: Oil, Terrorism, and America's National Security." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 414-420

Korn, David A. Assassination in Khartoum. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1993.

Kumamoto, Robert. International Terrorism and American Foreign Relations, 1945-1976. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999.

Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Tilting at Dominos: America and Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 421-426

Lamb, Michael W. Bytes: Weapons of Mass Disruption. Air War College, 2002.

Lesser, Ian O., Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David Ronfelft, and Michele Zanini. Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.

Lyman, Princeton N. and J. Stephen Morrison. "The Terrorist Threat in Africa." Foreign Affairs, vol. 83, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2004), 75-86.

Marlo, Francis H. "WMD Terrorism and US Intelligence Collection." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 3 (Autumn 1999), 53-71.

Martin, David C. and John Walcott. Best Laid Plans: The Inside Story of America's War Against Terrorism. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1988.

Mommsen, Wolfgang J. and Gerhard Hirschfeld, eds. Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Nye, Joseph. "Governments Challenge: Getting Serious About Terrorism," in  How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 199-210.

Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism." American Political Science Review, vol. 97, no. 3 (Aug 2003), 343-361.

Parachini, John V. "Non-Proliferation Policy and the War on Terrorism." Arms Control Today, vol. 31, no. 8 (Oct 2001), 13-15.

Patterns of Global Terrorism, (2002). Department of State Publication 11038. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism.

Pedahzur, Ami. "The Transformation of Israel's Radical Right." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2001), 25-42.

Pillar, Paul R. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2001.

Record, Jeffrey. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget (Sept 2003).

Richards, Alan. Socio-Economic Roots Of Radicalism? Towards Explaining The Appeal Of Islamic Radicals. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Roach, Kent. September 11: Consequences for Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Roberts, Brad, ed. Hype or Reality: The "New Terrorism" and Mass Casualty Attacks. Alexandria, VA: The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2000.

Roberts, Brad, ed. Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons: Calibrating Risks and Responses. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1997.

Roundtable on the Implications of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks for Nonproliferation and Arms Control. Nonproliferation Review, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2001, 11-26.

Schmid, Alex P. "Terrorism and the Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: From Where The Risk?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 106-132.

Sick, Gary. "Taking Vows" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 230-244.

Siegrist, David W. "The Threat of Biological Attack: Why Concern Now?" Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 1999), 505-508.

Simon, Jeffrey D. The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism (2nd Edition). Indiana University Press, 2001.

Smith, Andrew J. "Combating Terrorism." Military Review (Jan-Feb, 2002), 11-18.

Sprinzak, Ehud. "Terrorism, Real and Imagined." The Washington Post (August 19, 1998).

Sprinzak, Ehud. "The Great Superterrorism Scare." Foreign Policy, no. 112 (Fall 1998), 110-125

Tucker, David. "History," in Skirmishes at the Edge of Empire: The United States and International Terrorism. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997), 1-50.

Tucker, Jonathan B. and Robert P. Kadlec. "Infectious Disease and National Security." Strategic Review, vol. 29, no. 2 (Spring 2001), 12-20.

Turner, Stansfield. Terrorism and Democracy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" (May 23, 2003).

Weiner, Tim. "Rethinking the Ban on Political Assassinations." The New York Times (August 30, 1998).

Wieviorka, Michel. "French Politics and Strategy on Terrorism," in The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States, edited by Barry Rubin. (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, 1990), 61-90.

Wilkinson, Paul. Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.

Wilson, J. Brent. "The United States' Response to International Terrorism," in The Deadly Sin Of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, edited by David A. Charters. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994), 173-210.

Wisner II, Frank G., et. al. New Priorities in South Asia: U.S. Policy Toward India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2003.

 

 

 

 

New Threats

Al Qaeda Training Manual (see entry).

Arquilla, John and David Ronfeldt. "The Advent of Netwar (Revisited)," in Networks and Netwars. (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001), 1-25.

Beres, Louis René. "Israel, the 'Peace Process,' and Nuclear Terrorism: Recognizing the Linkages." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 21, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1998), 59-86.

Betts, Richard K. "The New Threat of Mass Destruction." Foreign Affairs, vol. 77, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1998), 26-40.

Block, Steve. "Living Nightmares: Biological Threats Enabled by Molecular Biology" in The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons, edited by Sidney Drell, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson. (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1999), 39-75.

Byman, Daniel L., Matthew C. Waxman, and Eric Larson. "Coercive Nonstate Actors: A Challenge for the Future," in Air Power as a Coercive Instrument. (Santa Monica: RAND, 1999), 107-126

Cilluffo Frank J. and Paul Byron Pattak. 2000. "Cyber Threats: Ten Issues for Consideration." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, vol. 1, no. 1, (Winter-Spring 2000).

Cilluffo, Frank J. and Curt H. Gergely. "Information Warfare and Strategic Terrorism." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 1997), 84-95.

Combs, Cindy C. "Future Trends," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 214-231.

Drell, Sidney, Abraham Sofaer and George Wilson, eds. The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1999.

Ganor, Boaz. "Defining Terrorism: Is One Man's Terrorist Another Man's Freedom Fighter?" FORSNET (December 29, 2002).

Garreau, Joel. "Disconnect the Dots." The Washington Post (September 17, 2001), C01.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 221-242.

Johnson, Douglas V. and John R. Martin. "Terrorism Viewed Historically," in Defeating Terrorism: Strategic Issue Analyses, edited by John R. Martin. (Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002), 1-5.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Understanding the New Terrorism." Current History (April 2000), 158-163.

Lamb, Michael W. Bytes: Weapons of Mass Disruption. Air War College, 2002.

Post, Jerrold M., Kevin Ruby and Eric Shaw. "The Radical Group in Context: An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Group Risk for Terrorism." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 25, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2002), 73-101.

Rapoport, David C. "Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions." The American Political Science Review, vol. 78, no. 3 (Sept 1984), 658-677.

Sartori, Giovanni. "Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics." American Political Science Review, vol. 64, no. 4 (1970), 1033-1053.

Thachuk, Kimberley. "Transnational Trends: New Threats?" in Strategic Assessment 1999: Priorities for a Turbulent World, edited by Hans Binnendijk. (Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1999).

Tucker, David. "What is New about the New Terrorism and How Dangerous is It?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 1-14.

United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" (May 23, 2003).

Zanders, Jean Pascal, Edvard Karlsson, Lena Melin, Erik Naslund and Lennart Thaning. "Risk Assessment of Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons (Appendix 9A)." SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000), 537-559.

 

New Threats: Holy War

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad and War Propaganda: The Ottoman Jihad Fatwa of November 11th, 1914," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 55-57.

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad: An Introduction," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 1-8

Peters, Rudolph. "The Relevance of the Jihad Doctrine in Sadat's Egypt," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 149-169.

Peters, Rudolph. Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 111-119.

 

Political Islam

Davis, Michael. "Laskar Jihad and the Political Position of Conservative Islam in Indonesia," Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, vol. 24, no. 1 (April 2002), 12-33.

Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Euben, Roxanne L. "Jihad and Political Violence." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 365-376

Hefner, Robert W. "Conclusion: Muslim Politics, Global Modernity," in Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 214-220.

Hefner, Robert W. "Democratization in an Age of Religious Revitalization," in Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 3-20.

Jaber, Hala. Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance. New York: Columbia University Press 1997.

Johnson, James Turner. "Two Cultures, Two Traditions: Opening a Dialogue," in The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997), 1-18.

Khashan, Hilal. "The New World Order and the Tempo of Militant Islam." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 24, no. 1 (1997), 5-24.

Peters, Rudolph. "The Relevance of the Jihad Doctrine in Sadat's Egypt," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 149-169.

Rashid, Ahmed. "Islam Underground in the Soviet Union," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 32-56.

Rashid, Ahmed. "Namangani and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 137-155.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Hizb ut-Tahrir: Reviving the Caliphate," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 115-136.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Islamic Renaissance Party and the Civil War in Tajikistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 95-114.

Rashid, Ahmed. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Richards, Alan. Socio-Economic Roots Of Radicalism? Towards Explaining The Appeal Of Islamic Radicals. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Roy, Oliver. The Failure of Political Islam. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994), 107-131 and 194-203.

Shaffer, Brenda. "Is there a Muslim Foreign Policy? The Case of the Caspian." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 382-387

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Competing National Imaginations," in Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 55-86.

 

Religion and Conflict

Abraham, Shara. "Chechnya: Between War and Peace." Human Rights Brief, vol. 8, no. 2 (2001), 1-8.

Akbar, M.J. "Introduction" in The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. (New York: Routledge, 2002), xv-xx.

Akbar, M.J. "Jihad in the East: A Crescent Over Delhi" in The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. (New York: Routledge, 2002), 99-112.

Armstrong, Karen. "Counterculture (1925-1960)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 199-232.

Armstrong, Karen. "Defeat? (1979-1999)" and "Afterword" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 317-333 and 354-371.

Armstrong, Karen. "Introduction" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), ix-xvi.

Armstrong, Karen. "Mobilization (1960-1974)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 233-277.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Being," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 50-73

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Dream," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 163-175.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Encounter," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 7-17

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Introduction," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 1-6

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Justice," and "Notes" in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 176-188 and 189-214.

Ateek, Naim Stifan. "Strife," in Justice, and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989), 18-49

Atran, Scott. "Stones Against the Iron Fist, Terror Within the Nation." Politics and Society, vol. 18, no. 4 (Dec 1990), 481-527

Ayoub, Mahmoud M. "Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam," in Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, edited by Richard T. Antoun and Mary Elaine Hegland. (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991), 67-77.

Bartholomueusz, Tessa J. In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Begin, Menachem. The Revolt: Story of the Irgun. New York: Henry Schuman, Inc., 1951.

Bell, J. Bower. Terror Out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, LEHI, and the Palestine Underground, 1929-1949. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1976.

Bergen, Peter. "The Bin Laden Trial: What Did We Learn?" Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 6 (Nov 2001), 429-435.

Bergen, Peter. Holy War, Inc. (New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster, Inc.), 24-43.

Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir: Fundamentalism Takes Root." Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 2 (Nov-Dec 1999), 22-53.

Byman, Daniel, Peter Chalk, Bruce Hoffman, William Rosenau, and David Brannan. "Diaspora Support for Insurgencies" and "The LTTE'S Military-Related Procurement," in Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 41-60 and 117-122.

Collins, Eamon. Killing Rage. London: Granta Books, 1997.

Crouch, Harold. "Indonesia: Violence and Radical Muslims." The International Crisis Group (October 2002).

Darby, John. "The Historical Background," in Northern Ireland: The Background to the Conflict. (Belfast, Northern Ireland: Appletree Press, 1983), 13-31.

de Silva, Chandra R. "The Role of Education in Ameliorating Political Violence in Sri Lanka" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 109-129

de Waal, Alex. "Creating Devastation and Calling it Islam: The War for Nuba, Sudan." SAIS Review, vol. 21, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 2001), 117-132.

Deng, Francis M. "Conclusions," in War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995), 484-515.

Deng, Francis M. "Overview of the Conflict," "Evolution of Identity of the North," and "Evolution of Identity of the South," in War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995), 9-97.

Donohue, Laura. "Counter-Terrorist Legislation, 1996-2000," in Counterterrorist Law and Emergency Powers in the United Kingdom, 1922-2000. (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2001), 259-305.

Donohue, Laura. "Emergency Powers and the Inception of the Northern State Emergency Measures," in Counterterrorist Law and Emergency Powers in the United Kingdom, 1922-2000. (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2001), 1-39.

Edrisinha, Rohan. "Constitutionalism, Pluralism, and Ethnic Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 169-187.

Elliott, Marianne. "A Resentful Belonging: Catholic Identity in the Twentieth Century," in The Catholics of Ulster: A History. (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 431-482.

Esposito, John L. "Jihad and the Struggle for Islam" in Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 26-70.

Esposito, John L. "Overview: The Significance of Religion for Global Order," in Religion and Global Order, edited by John L. Esposito and Michael Watson. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000), 17-37.

Ferracuti, Franco. "Ideology and Repentance: Terrorism in Italy," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 59-64.

Festinger, Leon, Henry W. Riecken, and Stanley Schachter. When Prophesy Fails. (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1956), 3-32.

Gall, Carlotta and Thomas de Waal. "Terrorism and Talks," in Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus. (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 256-288.

Ganguly, Rajat. "India, Pakistan and the Kashmir Insurgency: Causes, Dynamics and Prospects for Resolution." Asian Studies Review, vol. 25, no. 3 (Sept 2001), 309-335.

Ganguly, Sumit. "Explaining the Kashmir Insurgency: Political Mobilization and Institutional Decay." International Security, vol. 21, no. 2 (Fall 1996), 76-107.

Ganguly, Sumit. "Pakistan's Never-Ending Story," Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2000), 2-7.

Gillespie, Richard. "The Urban Guerrilla in Latin America," in Terrorism, Ideology, and Revolution, edited by Noel O'Sullivan. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986), 150-175.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Colombia University Press, 2002), 137-139.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Colombia University Press, 2002), 205-218.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 150-151.

Hamas. "The Charter of the Islamic Resisitance Movement (Hamas)," in The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence and Coexistence, by Shaul Mishal and Avraham Sela. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000) 175-199.

Hasan, Lihat Noorhaidi. "Faith and Politics: The Rise of Laskar Jihad in the Era of Transition in Indonesia." Indonesia, no. 73 (April 2002), 145-170.

Hatina, Meir. "Ideological Outlook," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 47-62.

Hatina, Meir. "Introduction," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 17-22.

Hatina, Meir. "Islamic Jihad - Historic Milestones," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 23-46.

Hatina, Meir. "The Oslo Accords - Ideology and Political Reality," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 85-106.

Hatina, Meir. Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001.

Hefner, Robert W. "Conclusion: Muslim Politics, Global Modernity," in Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 214-220.

Hefner, Robert W. "Democratization in an Age of Religious Revitalization," in Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 3-20.

Heilman, Samuel C. "Guides of the Faithful: Contemporary Religious Zionist Rabbis," in Spokesman for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle East, edited by R. Scott Appleby. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 328-362.

Hertzberg, Arthur. "Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook- 1865-1935," in The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader. (New York: Atheneum, 1977), 417-425.

Hogan, Gerard and Clive Walker. Political Violence and the Law in Ireland. New York: Manchester University Press, 1989.

Jaber, Hala. Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance. New York: Columbia University Press 1997.

Jones, Sidney. Al-Qaeda in Southeast Asia: The Case of 'Ngruki Network' in Indonesia. The International Crisis Group (Aug 2002).

Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Islam's Neglected Duty," in Terror in the Mind of God. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 60-83.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. The New Cold War: Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Karmon, Ely. "Islamic Terrorist Activities in Turkey in the 1990's." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1998), 101-121.

Khashan, Hilal. "The New World Order and the Tempo of Militant Islam." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 24, no. 1 (1997), 5-24.

Kinzer, Stephen. "The World: From the Caucasus to China; Zealots' Latest Targets are Poor, Remote and Vulnerable." The New York Times (October 31, 1999).

Larson, Geoff. "The Right of International Intervention in Civil Conflicts: Evolving International Law on State Sovereignty in Observance of Human Rights and Application to the Crisis in Chechnya." Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, no. 251 (Spring 2001).

Lewis, Bernard. "License to Kill." Foreign Affairs (Nov-Dec 1998), 14-19.

Little, David. "Belief, Ethnicity, and Nationalism." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 1995), 284-301.

Little, David. "Religion and Ethnicity in the Sri Lankan Civil War," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 41-56.

Lustick, Ian S. "Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Targets and Audiences," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 514-552

Mahmood, Cynthia K. Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds. Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 427-643.

Marton, Kati. A Death in Jerusalem: The Assassination by Jewish Extremists of the First Arab-Israeli Peacemaker. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Moyano, Maria Jose. Argentina's Lost Patrol: Armed Struggle, 1969-1979. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Mundra, Kusum. Suicide Bombing as a Strategic Instrument of Protest: An Empirical Investigation. Unpublished monograph (2003).

Naipaul, V. S. "The End of the Line," in India: A Million Mutinies Now. (New York: Minerva, 1990), 351-387.

Nandy, Ashis. "The Politics of Secularism and the Recovery of Religious Tolerance," in Secularism and its Critics, edited by Rajeev Shargava. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 321-344.

Noble, Kerry. "A Date of Infamy," in Tabernacle of Hate: Why They Bombed Oklahoma City. (Ontario, Canada: Voyageur Publishing, 1998), 213-217.

O'Halpin, Eunan. "Unresolved Questions: Defense, Security, Subversion since 1969," in Defending Ireland: The Irish State and its Enemies since 1922. (Oxford University Press, 1999), 304-349.

Pedahzur, Ami. "The Transformation of Israel's Radical Right." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2001), 25-42.

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad and War Propaganda: The Ottoman Jihad Fatwa of November 11th, 1914," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 55-57.

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad: An Introduction," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 1-8

Peters, Rudolph. Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 111-119.

Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Rapoport, David C. "Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions." The American Political Science Review, vol. 78, no. 3 (Sept 1984), 658-677.

Rapoport, David C. "Sacred Terror: A Contemporary Example from Islam," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 103-130.

Richardson, Louise. "A Spiral of Peace? Bringing an End to Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland," in Civil Wars: Consequences and Possibilities for Regulation, edited by Heinrich Krumwiede and Peter Waldmann. (Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Publishers, 2000), 166-184.

Rosen, Steven. "Introduction," in Holy War: Violence in the Bhagavad Gita. (Hampton, VA: A. Deepak Publishing, 2002), 1-34.

Ruthven, Malise. "Jihad," in A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America. (New York: Granta Books, 2002), 44-71.

Said, Edward. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Sayigh, Yezid. "The Armed Struggle and Palestinian Nationalism," in The PLO and Israel: From Armed Conflict to Political Solution, 1964-1994, edited by Avraham Sela and Moshe Ma'oz. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997), 23-35.

Schaffer, Teresita C. "Peacemaking in Sri Lanka: The Kumaratunga Initiative" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 131-141.

Segal, Haggai. "Clear Away the Abomination!" in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 52-60.

Segal, Haggai. "In Search of a Spiritual Authority," in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 61-73.

Segal, Haggai. "Shabtai Ben-Dov," in Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. (Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, 1988), 36-51.

Sen, Amartya. "Secularism and its Discontents," in Secularism and its Critics, edited by Rajeev Bhargava. (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), 454-485.

Simon, Steven and Daniel Benjamin. "The Terror." Survival, vol. 43, no. 4 (Winter 2001), 5-19.

Smart, Ninian. "Introduction," in The World's Religions: Old Traditions and Modern Transformations. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 10-28.

Sprinzak, Ehud. "From Messianic Pioneering to Vigilante Terrorism: The Case of the Gush Emunim Underground," in Inside Terrorist Organizations, edited by David C. Rapoport. (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001), 194-216.

Sprinzak, Ehud. "To Kill a Prime Minister," in Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination. (New York: The Free Press, 1999), 244-285.

Swamy, M.R. Narayan. Tigers of Lanka: From Boys to Guerillas. Delhi: Konark Publishers, 1994.

Tambiah, Stanley J. "Buddhism, Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka," in Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 589-619.

Tiruchelvam, Neelan. "Devolution and the Elusive Quest for Peace," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 189-201.

Toolis, Kevin. Rebel Hearts: Journeys Within the IRA's Soul. St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Uyangoda, Jayadeva. "A Political Culture of Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 158-168.

van Bruinessen, Martin. "Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia." South East Research, vol. 10, no. 2 (2002), 117-154.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Competing National Imaginations," in Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 55-86.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society." World Politics, vol. 53, no. 3 (April 2001), 362-398.

Wallace, Paul. "Political Violence and Terrorism in India: The Crisis of Identity," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 354-409.

Weaver, Mary Anne. "Department of National Security: The Real Bin Laden." The New Yorker (January 24, 2000), 32-38.

Weber, Max. "The Relationship of Religion to Politics, Economics, Sexuality, and Art," in The Sociology of Religion. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 223-245.

Whyte, John. "Some Religious Aspects," in Interpreting Northern Ireland. (New York: Clarendon Press, 1990), 26-51.

 

Religion and Conflict Management

Appleby, R. Scott. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding," in Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. (Washington, DC: USIP Press, 2002), 821-840.

Bartoli, Andrea. "Forgiveness and Reconciliation in the Mozambique Peace Process," in Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation, edited by Raymond G. Helmick, S. J. and Rodney Petersen. (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2001), 361-381.

Bartoli, Andrea. "Mediating Peace in Mozambique: The Role of the Community of Sant'Egidio," in Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall. (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), 247-273.

Hogan, Gerard and Clive Walker. Political Violence and the Law in Ireland. New York: Manchester University Press, 1989.

Karmon, Ely. "Terrorism in Turkey: An Analysis of the Principal Players." International Policy Institute for Counterterrorism, 1999.

Little, David. "Belief, Ethnicity, and Nationalism." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 1995), 284-301.

Madrakhimov, M. Bakhrom. The Rise Of Islamic Fundamentalism Uzbekistan. Air Command and Staff College (Monograph 02-074), 2002.

 

Religion and Conflict: Abortion Clinics

Hill, Paul. Various Internet essays and material (http://armyofgod.com).

 

Religion and Conflict: Cults

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Live in Love and Union: Commitment Mechanisms in Nineteenth Century Communes," in Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972), 75-125.

 

Religion and Violence

Appleby, R. Scott. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding," in Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. (Washington, DC: USIP Press, 2002), 821-840.

Armstrong, Karen. "Introduction" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), ix-xvi.

Ayoub, Mahmoud M. "Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam," in Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, edited by Richard T. Antoun and Mary Elaine Hegland. (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991), 67-77.

Bartholomueusz, Tessa J. In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

de Waal, Alex. "Creating Devastation and Calling it Islam: The War for Nuba, Sudan." SAIS Review, vol. 21, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 2001), 117-132.

Esposito, John L. "Overview: The Significance of Religion for Global Order," in Religion and Global Order, edited by John L. Esposito and Michael Watson. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000), 17-37.

Fox, Jonathan. "Two Civilizations and Ethnic Conflict: Islam and the West." Journal of Peace Research, vol. 38, no. 4 (2001), 459-472.

Hamas. "The Charter of the Islamic Resisitance Movement (Hamas)," in The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence and Coexistence, by Shaul Mishal and Avraham Sela. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000) 175-199.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. The New Cold War: Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Kelsay, John. "War, Peace, and the Imperatives of Justice in Islamic Perspective," in War and Justice in World Religions. (Brookfield: Ashgate, 2002), 1-14.

Kinzer, Stephen. "The World: From the Caucasus to China; Zealots' Latest Targets are Poor, Remote and Vulnerable." The New York Times (October 31, 1999).

Little, David. "Belief, Ethnicity, and Nationalism." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 1995), 284-301.

Noble, Kerry. "A Date of Infamy," in Tabernacle of Hate: Why They Bombed Oklahoma City. (Ontario, Canada: Voyageur Publishing, 1998), 213-217.

Philpott, Daniel. "The Challenge of September 11 to Secularism in International Relations." World Politics, vol. 55, no. 1 (Oct 2002), 66-95.

Rahman, Fazlur. "Muhammed," and "The Qur'an," in Islam (2nd Edition). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 11-29 and 30-42.

Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Rosen, Steven. "Introduction," in Holy War: Violence in the Bhagavad Gita. (Hampton, VA: A. Deepak Publishing, 2002), 1-34.

Ruthven, Malise. "Jihad," in A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America. (New York: Granta Books, 2002), 44-71.

Smart, Ninian. "Introduction," in The World's Religions: Old Traditions and Modern Transformations. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 10-28.

Testas, Abdelaziz. "The Roots of Algeria's Religious and Ethnic Violence." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 25, no. 3 (May 2002), 161-184.

Weber, Max. "The Relationship of Religion to Politics, Economics, Sexuality, and Art," in The Sociology of Religion. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 223-245.

 

Religion as a Mobilizing Force

Armstrong, Karen. "Counterculture (1925-1960)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 199-232.

Armstrong, Karen. "Defeat? (1979-1999)" and "Afterword" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 317-333 and 354-371.

Armstrong, Karen. "Mobilization (1960-1974)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 233-277.

Esposito, John L. "Jihad and the Struggle for Islam" in Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 26-70.

Kramer, Martin. "The Moral Logic of Hizbollah," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 131-157.

 

Religious Ideology

Akbar, M.J. "Introduction" in The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. (New York: Routledge, 2002), xv-xx.

Al Qaeda Training Manual (see entry).

Alexander, Yonah and Michael S. Swetnam. Usama bin Laden's al-Qaeda: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2001.

Armstrong, Karen. "Counterculture (1925-1960)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 199-232.

Armstrong, Karen. "Defeat? (1979-1999)" and "Afterword" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 317-333 and 354-371.

Armstrong, Karen. "Introduction" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), ix-xvi.

Armstrong, Karen. "Mobilization (1960-1974)" in The Battle for God. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 233-277.

Ayoub, Mahmoud M. "Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam," in Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, edited by Richard T. Antoun and Mary Elaine Hegland. (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991), 67-77.

Bartholomueusz, Tessa J. In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Bell, J. Bower. Terror Out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, LEHI, and the Palestine Underground, 1929-1949. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1976.

Benjamin, Daniel and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. (New York: Random House, 2002).

Bergen, Peter. Holy War, Inc. (New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster, Inc.), 24-43.

Combs, Cindy C. "Ideology and Terrorism: Rights from Wrongs?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 33-47.

Davis, Michael. "Laskar Jihad and the Political Position of Conservative Islam in Indonesia," Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, vol. 24, no. 1 (April 2002), 12-33.

Esposito, John L. "Jihad and the Struggle for Islam" in Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 26-70.

Ferracuti, Franco. "Ideology and Repentance: Terrorism in Italy," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 59-64.

Festinger, Leon, Henry W. Riecken, and Stanley Schachter. When Prophesy Fails. (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1956), 3-32.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 84-94.

Hamas. "The Charter of the Islamic Resisitance Movement (Hamas)," in The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence and Coexistence, by Shaul Mishal and Avraham Sela. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000) 175-199.

Hatina, Meir. "Ideological Outlook," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 47-62.

Hatina, Meir. "Introduction," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 17-22.

Hatina, Meir. "Islamic Jihad - Historic Milestones," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 23-46.

Hatina, Meir. "The Oslo Accords - Ideology and Political Reality," in Islam and Salvation in Palestine: The Islamic Jihad Movement. (Tel-Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2001), 85-106.

Heilman, Samuel C. "Guides of the Faithful: Contemporary Religious Zionist Rabbis," in Spokesman for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle East, edited by R. Scott Appleby. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 328-362.

Hertzberg, Arthur. "Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook- 1865-1935," in The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader. (New York: Atheneum, 1977), 417-425.

Hill, Paul. Various Internet essays and material (http://armyofgod.com).

Johnson, James Turner. "Holy War and the Question of Justification," in The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997), 47-75.

Johnson, James Turner. "Two Cultures, Two Traditions: Opening a Dialogue," in The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997), 1-18.

Johnson, James Turner. Morality and Contemporary Warfare. (New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1999), 22-40 and 119-124.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Islam's Neglected Duty," in Terror in the Mind of God. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 60-83.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. (Berkeley: University of California Press), 19-36.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. The New Cold War: Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Kelsay, John. "War, Peace, and the Imperatives of Justice in Islamic Perspective," in War and Justice in World Religions. (Brookfield: Ashgate, 2002), 1-14.

Kennedy, Robert. "Is One Person's Terrorist Another's Freedom Fighter? Western and Islamic Approaches to 'Just War' Compared." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 1-21.

Kramer, Martin. "The Moral Logic of Hizbollah," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 131-157.

Lewis, Bernard. "License to Kill." Foreign Affairs (Nov-Dec 1998), 14-19.

Marton, Kati. A Death in Jerusalem: The Assassination by Jewish Extremists of the First Arab-Israeli Peacemaker. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Merari, Ariel. "The Readiness to Kill and Die: Suicidal Terrorism in the Middle East," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 192-207.

Noble, Kerry. "A Date of Infamy," in Tabernacle of Hate: Why They Bombed Oklahoma City. (Ontario, Canada: Voyageur Publishing, 1998), 213-217.

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad and War Propaganda: The Ottoman Jihad Fatwa of November 11th, 1914," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 55-57.

Peters, Rudolph. "Jihad: An Introduction," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 1-8

Peters, Rudolph. "The Relevance of the Jihad Doctrine in Sadat's Egypt," in Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 149-169.

Peters, Rudolph. Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. (Princeton: Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 111-119.

Propst, Rod. "New Terrorists, New Attack Means? Categorizing Terrorist Challenges for the Early 21st Century." Journal of Homeland Security (Mar 2002).

Rahman, Fazlur. "Muhammed," and "The Qur'an," in Islam (2nd Edition). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 11-29 and 30-42.

Rapoport, David C. "Sacred Terror: A Contemporary Example from Islam," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 103-130.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Taliban: Exporting Extremism." Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 2 (Nov-Dec 1999), 22-53.

Rosen, Steven. "Introduction," in Holy War: Violence in the Bhagavad Gita. (Hampton, VA: A. Deepak Publishing, 2002), 1-34.

Roy, Olivier, Bruce Hoffman, Reuven Paz, Steve Simon, and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism: An Exchange." Survival, vol. 42, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 165-172.

Ruthven, Malise. "Jihad," in A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America. (New York: Granta Books, 2002), 44-71.

Said, Edward. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Sen, Amartya. "Secularism and its Discontents," in Secularism and its Critics, edited by Rajeev Bhargava. (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), 454-485.

Simon, Steven and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism." Survival, vol. 42, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 59-75.

Sprinzak, Ehud. "From Messianic Pioneering to Vigilante Terrorism: The Case of the Gush Emunim Underground," in Inside Terrorist Organizations, edited by David C. Rapoport. (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001), 194-216.

Sprinzak, Ehud. "To Kill a Prime Minister," in Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination. (New York: The Free Press, 1999), 244-285.

Stern, Jessica. "The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord," in Toxic Terror, edited by Jonathan Tucker. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 139-157.

Timmerman, Kenneth R. Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America. New York: Random House, 2003.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Competing National Imaginations," in Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 55-86.

 

Revolutionary Terrorism

Begin, Menachem. The Revolt: Story of the Irgun. New York: Henry Schuman, Inc., 1951.

della Porta, Donatella. "Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 105-159.

della Porta, Donatella. Social Movements, Political Violence and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Italy and Germany. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics), 1995.

Dunne, James T. "Osama bin Laden: A Survey of the Literature," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 3 (Mar-Apr 2003), 155-161.

Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Euben, Roxanne L. "Jihad and Political Violence." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 365-376

Ganguly, Sumit. "Pakistan's Never-Ending Story," Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2000), 2-7.

Gillespie, Richard. "The Urban Guerrilla in Latin America," in Terrorism, Ideology, and Revolution, edited by Noel O'Sullivan. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986), 150-175.

Gorriti, Gustavo. The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. Durham, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Heehs, Peter. The Bomb in Bengal: The Rise of Revolutionary Terrorism in India, 1900-1910. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Joshi, Manoj. "On the Razor's Edge: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan-Mar 1996), 19-42.

Kellen, Konrad. "Ideology and Rebellion: Terrorism in Western Germany," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 43-58.

Kriger, Norma J. Guerilla Veterans in Post-War Zimbabwe: Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980-1987. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Merkl, Peter J. "West German Left-Wing Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 160-210.

Miller, Martin A. "The Intellectual Origins of Modern Terrorism in Europe," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crendhaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 27-62.

O'Doherty, Malachi. The Trouble With Guns: Republican Strategy and the Provisional IRA. Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1998.

Palmer, David Scott. "The Revolutionary Terrorism of Peru's Shining Path," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 249-308

Perry, Duncan M. The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Revolutionary Movements, 1893-1903. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1988.

Pomper, Phillip M. "Russian Revolutionary Terrorism," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 63-101.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Guerrilla Strategy," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 39-51.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Origins and Development of the Guerrillas," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 23-38.

Shabad, Goldie and Francisco Jose Llera Ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic State: Basque Terrorism in Spain," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 410-469.

Smith, M. L. R. Fighting for Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement. London: Routledge, 1996

 

Role of Religion

Esposito, John L. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Euben, Roxanne L. "Jihad and Political Violence." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 365-376

Philpott, Daniel. "The Challenge of September 11 to Secularism in International Relations." World Politics, vol. 55, no. 1 (Oct 2002), 66-95.

Rashid, Ahmed. "Islam Underground in the Soviet Union," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 32-56.

Rashid, Ahmed. "Namangani and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 137-155.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Hizb ut-Tahrir: Reviving the Caliphate," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 115-136.

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Islamic Renaissance Party and the Civil War in Tajikistan," in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 95-114.

Rashid, Ahmed. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Roy, Oliver. The Failure of Political Islam. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994), 107-131 and 194-203.

Shaffer, Brenda. "Is there a Muslim Foreign Policy? The Case of the Caspian." Current History, vol. 101, no. 658 (Nov 2002), 382-387

Simon, Steven and Daniel Benjamin. "The Terror." Survival, vol. 43, no. 4 (Winter 2001), 5-19.

Testas, Abdelaziz. "The Roots of Algeria's Religious and Ethnic Violence." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 25, no. 3 (May 2002), 161-184.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society." World Politics, vol. 53, no. 3 (April 2001), 362-398.

 

Secular Justification

Combs, Cindy C. "Ideology and Terrorism: Rights from Wrongs?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 33-47.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Introduction: Thoughts on Relating Terrorism to Historical Contexts," in Terrorism in Context. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 3-24.

della Porta, Donatella. Social Movements, Political Violence and the State: A Comparative Analysis of Italy and Germany. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics), 1995.

Klare, Michael. "The Deadly Nexus: Oil, Terrorism, and America's National Security." Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 414-420

Miller, Martin A. "The Intellectual Origins of Modern Terrorism in Europe," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crendhaw. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001), 27-62.

O'Doherty, Malachi. The Trouble With Guns: Republican Strategy and the Provisional IRA. Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1998.

Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism." American Political Science Review, vol. 97, no. 3 (Aug 2003), 343-361.

Silke, Andrew. "Drink, Drugs, and Rock-n-Roll: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland, Part 2." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 23 (April-June 2000), 107-127.

Smith, M. L. R. Fighting for Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement. London: Routledge, 1996

Toolis, Kevin. Rebel Hearts: Journeys Within the IRA's Soul. St. Martin's Press, 1996.

 

State Terrorism

Chauvin, Luc. "French Diplomacy and the Hostage Crises," in The Politics of Counterterrorism: The Ordeal of Democratic States, edited by Barry Rubin. (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, 1990), 91-104.

Chomsky, Noam. "International Terrorism: Image and Reality," in Western State Terrorism, edited by Alexander George. (New York: Routledge), 12-38.

Combs, Cindy C. "Terrorism by the State," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 66-86.

Green, Jerrold D. "Terrorism and Politics in Iran," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 553-594

Lavoy, Peter R., Scott D. Sagan, and James J. Wirtz, eds. Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Leitenberg, Milton. "An Assessment of the Biological Weapons Threat to the United States." The Journal of Homeland Security (January 2001).

Parachini, John. "Putting WMD Terrorism into Perspective." The Washington Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 4 (Autumn 2003), 37-50.

Richardson, Louise. "Global Rebels." Harvard International Review (Fall 1998), 52-56.

Simon, Steven and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism." Survival, vol. 42, no. 1 (Spring 2000), 59-75.

Zimmermann, Tim. "Coercive Diplomacy and Libya," in The Limits of Coercive Diplomacy (2nd Edition), edited by Alexander L. George and William E. Simons. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), 201-228.

 

Strategies to Respond and Defeat Terrorism

Carter, Ashton B. "The Architecture of Government in the Face of Terrorism." International Security, vol. 26, no. 3 (Dec 2001), 5-24.

Cragin, Kim and Peter Chalk. Terrorism and Development: Using Social and Economic Development to Inhibit a Resurgence of Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2003.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Counterterrorism Policy and the Political Process." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept-Oct 2001), 329-337

Davis, Paul K. and Brian M. Jenkins. Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism: A Component in the War on al Qaeda. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.

Jenkins, Brian M. Countering al Qaeda: An Appreciation of the Situation and Suggestions for Strategy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.

Jones, Clive. "One Size Fits All: Israel, Intelligence, and the al-Aqsa Intifada." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 4 (July-Aug 2003), 273-288

Neier, Aryeh. "The Military Tribunals on Trial." The New York Review of Books, vol. 49, no. 2 (February 14, 2002), 1-11

Roach, Kent. September 11: Consequences for Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Stevenson, Jonathan. "Pragmatic Counterterrorism." Survival, vol. 43, no. 4 (Winter, 2001-02), 35-48.

 

Terrorism and State Formation

Chalk, Peter. "The Response to Terrorism as a Threat to Liberal Democracy." Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 44, no. 3 (1998), 373-88.

Edrisinha, Rohan. "Constitutionalism, Pluralism, and Ethnic Conflict," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 169-187.

Schaffer, Teresita C. "Peacemaking in Sri Lanka: The Kumaratunga Initiative" in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 131-141.

Tiruchelvam, Neelan. "Devolution and the Elusive Quest for Peace," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation, edited by Robert Rotberg. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 189-201.

Youngs, Tim, Paul Bowers and Mark Oakes. The Campaign Against International Terrorism: Prospects After The Fall Of The Taliban. Research Paper 01/112. International Affairs And Defense Section, House Of Commons Library (Dec. 11, 2001).

 

Terrorism and the Media

Bok, Sissela. Mayhem: Violence As Public Entertainment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998.

Chomsky, Noam. "International Terrorism: Image and Reality," in Western State Terrorism, edited by Alexander George. (New York: Routledge), 12-38.

Cole, Leonard. " A Plague of Publicity." The Washington Post (August 16, 1999).

Combs, Cindy C. "The Media: A Weapon for Both Sides?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 120-148

Conway, Martha. "What is Cyberterrorism?" Current History, vol. 101, no. 659 (Dec 2002), 436-442.

Hermann, Margaret G. and Charles F. Hermann. "Hostage Taking, the Presidency, and Stress," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 211-229.

Jenkins, Philip. Images of Terror: What We Can and Can't Know about Terrorism. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003.

Leitenberg, Milton. "An Assessment of the Biological Weapons Threat to the United States." The Journal of Homeland Security (January 2001).

Leitenberg, Milton. "Aum Shinrikyo's Efforts to Produce Biological Weapons: A Case Study in the Serial Propagation of Misinformation." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 149-158.

Nacos, Bridgett L., Robert Y. Shapiro, and Pierangelo Isernia, eds. Decisionmaking in a Glass House: Mass Media, Public Opinion, and American and European the 21st Century. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Nacos, Brigitte L. Terrorism and the Media: From the Iran Hostage Crisis to the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Said, Edward. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Sick, Gary. "Taking Vows" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 230-244.

Wagner-Pacifici, Robin Erica. The Moro Morality Play: Terrorism as Social Drama. The University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Wilkinson, Paul. Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.

 

Terrorism, Money and Crime

Byman, Daniel, Peter Chalk, Bruce Hoffman, William Rosenau, and David Brannan. "Diaspora Support for Insurgencies" and "The LTTE'S Military-Related Procurement," in Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 41-60 and 117-122.

Dishman, Chris. "Terrorism, Crime and Transformation." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 1, (Jan-Feb 2001), 43-58.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 60-70.

Horgan, John; Taylor, Max. "Playing the Green Card - Financing the Provisional IRA: Part 1." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 2 (Summer 1999), 1-38.

Hudson, Rex A. "Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America." Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, July 2003.

Lepgold, Joseph. "Hypotheses on Vulnerability: Are Terrorists and Drug Traffickers Coerceable?" in Strategic Coercion: Concept and Cases, edited by Lawrence Freedman. (London: Oxford University Press, 1998), 131-150.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Guerrilla Strategy," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 39-51.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "Origins and Development of the Guerrillas," in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 23-38.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. "The Illegal Self-Defense Groups: Cause or Symptom of the Disorder?" in Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001), 53-60.

Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability. (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001).

Rashid, Ahmed. "The Taliban: Exporting Extremism." Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 2 (Nov-Dec 1999), 22-53.

Silke, Andrew. "Drink, Drugs, and Rock-n-Roll: Financing Loyalist Terrorism in Northern Ireland, Part 2." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 23 (April-June 2000), 107-127.

Stern, Jessica. "Protean Enemy." Foreign Affairs, vol. 82, no. 4 (July-Aug 2003), 27-40.

Wechsler, William F. "Strangling the Hydra," in How Did This Happen? Terrorism and the New War, edited by James Hoge and Gideon Rose. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 129-143.

 

Terrorism's New Model

Bergen, Peter. Holy War, Inc. (New York: Touchstone/Simon and Schuster, Inc.), 24-43.

Chalk, Peter. "Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's (LTTE) International Organization and Operations: A Preliminary Analysis." Comentary 77, a Canadian Security Intelligence Service Publication (1999).

Combs, Cindy C. "Future Trends," in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 214-231.

Garreau, Joel. "Disconnect the Dots." The Washington Post (September 17, 2001), C01.

Hartman, William J. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare. Air Command and Staff College. (Monograph 02-053), 2002.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Understanding the New Terrorism." Current History (April 2000), 158-163.

McCloud, Kimberly and Matthew Osborne. "WMD Terrorism and Usama bin Laden." Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Nov 20, 2001).

Richardson, Louise. "Global Rebels." Harvard International Review (Fall 1998), 52-56.

Roundtable on the Implications of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks for Nonproliferation and Arms Control. Nonproliferation Review, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2001, 11-26.

Stern, Jessica. "Protean Enemy." Foreign Affairs, vol. 82, no. 4 (July-Aug 2003), 27-40.

 

Terrorist Movements and Psychology

Alexander, Yonah and Michael S. Swetnam. Usama bin Laden's al-Qaeda: Profile of a Terrorist Network. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2001.

Bandura, Albert. "Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 161-191.

Cameron, Gavin. "Multi-track Microproliferation: Lessons from Aum Shinrikyo and Al Qaeda." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 22, no. 4 (Nov 1999), 277-309.

Cameron, Gavin. Nuclear Terrorism: A Threat Assessment for the 21st Century. New York: St. Martin's, 1999.

Combs, Cindy C. "Criminals or Crusaders?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 48-65.

Combs, Cindy C. "Ideology and Terrorism: Rights from Wrongs?" in Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), 33-47.

Crelinsten, Ronald D. "Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in a Multi-Centric World: Challenges and Opportunities." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter 1999), 170-196.

Crenshaw, Martha. "How Terrorism Declines." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 1991), 69-88.

Crenshaw, Martha. "Questions to be Answered, Research to be Done, Knowledge to be Applied," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 247-260.

Crenshaw, Martha. "The Logic of Terrorism: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Strategic Choice," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 7-24.

Dolnik, Adam. "Die and Let Die: Exploring the Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 26, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 2003), 17-35.

Foxell, Joseph W. "The Debate on the Potential for Mass-Casualty Terrorism: The Challenge to US Security." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 94-109.

Gressang, Daniel S. "Audience and Message: Assessing Terrorist WMD Potential." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 83-106.

Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists. Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2001.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Live in Love and Union: Commitment Mechanisms in Nineteenth Century Communes," in Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972), 75-125.

Kaplan, David, Kevin Whitelaw, Edward T. Pound, Nora Keating, and Lisa Griffin. "The CEO of Terror, Inc." U.S. News and World Report (October 1, 2001).

Kellen, Konrad. "Ideology and Rebellion: Terrorism in Western Germany," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 43-58.

Kramer, Martin. "The Moral Logic of Hizbollah," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 131-157.

Lavoy, Peter R., Scott D. Sagan, and James J. Wirtz, eds. Planning the Unthinkable: How New Powers Will Use Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Lustick, Ian S. "Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Targets and Audiences," in Terrorism in Context, edited by Martha Crenshaw. (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 514-552

Mahmood, Cynthia K. Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Mayer, Jean-François. "Cults, Violence and Religious Terrorism: An International Perspective." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 24, no. 5 (Sept 2001), 361-376.

Merari, Ariel. "The Readiness to Kill and Die: Suicidal Terrorism in the Middle East," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 192-207.

Moyano, Maria Jose. Argentina's Lost Patrol: Armed Struggle, 1969-1979. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism." American Political Science Review, vol. 97, no. 3 (Aug 2003), 343-361.

Post, Jerrold M. "Terrorist Psycho-logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological Forces," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 25-40.

Post, Jerrold M., Kevin Ruby and Eric Shaw. "The Radical Group in Context: An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Group Risk for Terrorism." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 25, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 2002), 73-101.

Post, Jerrold. "Terrorist Psycho-logic" in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Washington: Wilson Center Press, 1998), 25-40.

Propst, Rod. "New Terrorists, New Attack Means? Categorizing Terrorist Challenges for the Early 21st Century." Journal of Homeland Security (Mar 2002).

Reich, Walter. "Understanding Terrorist Behavior: The Limits and Opportunities of Psychological Inquiry," in Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich. (Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 261-279.

Roy, Olivier, Bruce Hoffman, Reuven Paz, Steve Simon, and Daniel Benjamin. "America and the New Terrorism: An Exchange." Survival, vol. 42, no. 2 (Summer 2000), 165-172.

Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd. "The Dynamics of Conflict: Culture," in The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 178-203.

Tucker, David. "What is New about the New Terrorism and How Dangerous is It?" Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2001), 1-14.

United States of America v. Khalfan Khamis Mohamed. Court Transcript, July 2, 2001.

Vegar, Jose. "Terrorism's New Breed." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 54, no. 2 (Mar-Apr 1998), 50-55.

Weaver, Mary Anne. "Department of National Security: The Real Bin Laden." The New Yorker (January 24, 2000), 32-38.


 

 

 


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